Thursday, May 17, 2012

I'm Moving!

I will be moving to a new blog at soon. The content will be the same. I will continue to discuss current prenatal and childbirth practices. Breastfeeding and postnatal issues will also be important to highlight. Please visit me and my colleagues and our business at Birth Origins.

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Every now and then....

Every now and then Richard and I come across something that makes us go hmmmm? Recently we have had two things that have made us take a look at our lifestyle and helped us to make a change for the better.
Have you seen the documentary "Forks Over Knives"? Go out and rent it or get it on Netflick's. It's astonishing, astounding, aspiring and certainly provoking. Basically, the movie shows numerous physicians and research studies that show the direct correlation between cancer, diabetes, and heart disease with the consumption of meat and animal products. Several people, whom are already on many prescription medications for these ailments, enlist themselves into a diet related program to find that they have eliminated the need for such medications and have reversed many of the diseases. They also find that they loose weight and have increased level of energy and libido. Sounds like a miracle, right?

Check out the website...
So what can you eat? The diet consists of any whole grains, fruits and vegetables. You must do away with meat, dairy and of course refined sugars, processed foods and oils. Sounds pretty simple... not when you look at what you eat on a daily basis which can also be a huge wake up call.
So what has the Pratten household done about it? Not a whole lot yet but intend to do some further research. We have looked into buying a recipe book, written by one of the physician's sons, for some inspiration and motivation. I have definitely become more aware of how much dairy and meat I consume and that in itself is my first step. I will keep you updated on how this all evolves.
The other event that has created change in our house is the sudden ear infection that Paige acquired. She is now on antibiotics and as many of you know, antibiotics can wipe out all bacteria...even the good stuff. This has certainly lit a fire under my bum and we went straight out to get probiotics for the whole family. I have wanted to commence them for awhile now but i guess I needed a swift kick! So, hopefully all of our digestive tracts will be healthier and happier very soon.

Benefits of Probiotics
  • Improves tolerance to dairy products
  • Improves nutrient absorption
  • Regulates immune function
  • Relieves minor gastrointestinal problems
  • Acts as a barrier against harmful organisms
These are the most well known benefits of probiotics. There is emerging science to suggest that probiotics may be useful in the treatment of hypertension,  high cholesterol,  IBS,  and the prevention of colon cancer.

Friday, January 13, 2012

Delayed Cord Clamping... Best for Babe.

Until recently, immediate clamping and cutting the cord was routine obstetrics. The baby was born and the cord was clamped within seconds, extinguishing the flow of quality blood from the placenta to the newborn. Till this day, many newborns still suffer through this as many physicians have yet to adopt the practice of delayed cord cutting.
Many studies have shown that by delaying cord clamping, even just 30 seconds, babies benefit immensely. The rich blood that continues to flow to the baby contains vital stem cells, hemoglobin, iron, ferritin and oxygen. In return the liver continues to produce toxins which are released via the cord to the placenta. As nature would have intended, studies show that babies benefit from a natural approach to the matter instead of the intervention of clamping prematurely.
Lets take each component separately and dissect the benefits to the babe. Hematopoietic stem cells are cells that differentiate into cells that build bone, cartilage, connective tissue and are also very effective in aiding the body's natural inflammatory response to damaged or injured cells. Research has shown that stem cells can mediate against cancer and immune disorders as well. Many of us are aware that the option of banking cord blood for late use is becoming increasing popular despite the extreme financial obligation. Why not bank those precious stem cells in the baby, where they belong?
Hemoglobin is a blood component that carries and deliveries oxygen throughout the body. By delaying cord clamping by even 1 minute babies receive 80 milliliters more blood and up to 100 milliliters at three minutes. By giving our babies more hemoglobin we are also reducing the likelihood of respiratory distress and tachypnea (rapid breathing)of the newborn thus eliminating a trip to the NICU.
Immediate versus delayed umbilical cord clamping in premature neonates born < 35 weeks: a prospective, randomized, controlled study (11)
Randomized 60 infants to clamping at 5-10 seconds vs. 30-45 seconds.  Delayed clamping infants had higher BPs and hematocrits.  Infants < 1500 grams with delayed clamping needed less mechanical ventilation and surfactant.  Trend towards more polycythemia in delayed group, but not statistically significant.
Iron and ferritin, a blood product that stores iron,  are a major factor during infancy especially in anemic societies. Babies are prone to becoming anemic which can negatively effect neurodevelopment. When this extra iron is added to the approximately 75 mg/kg of body iron that a full-term newborn is born with, the total amount of iron can reach 115–125 mg/kg of body weight, which may help prevent iron deficiency during the first year of life.
Iron levels are considerably higher in infants at four months and six months of age when compared to babies whose cord was immediately clamped.
Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on iron status in Mexican infants: a randomized controlled trial(9)
Randomized 476 infants to immediate or 2 minute delayed clamping and followed them for 6 months.  Delayed clamped babies had higher MCVs (81 vs. 79.5), higher ferritins (50.7 vs. 34.4), and higher total body iron.  Effects were greater in infants born to iron deficient mothers.  Delayed clamping increased total iron stores by 27-47mg.  A follow up study showed that lead exposed infants with delayed clamping also had lower serum lead levels than immediate clamped infants, likely due to iron mediates changes in lead absorption.

Cord clamping seems perfectly reasonable when were talking about a vaginal delivery of a healthy term infant, but what about babies born via cesarean, pre-term or those that are compromised? How can we ensure that those babies, who may benefit most, receive the valuable cord blood that nature intended? Some medical professionals error on the side that even though babies are born prematurely it is in their best interest to delay cord clamping even if it delays resuscitation as surely receiving extra amounts of oxygenated blood would provide more than what premature lungs can. Studies also show that there is less risk of Intraventricular hemorrhage and necrotizing colitis which are prevalent in pre-term infants. This has yet to be adopted in neonatal resuscitation guidelines and need further research before considered safe.
Delayed cord clamping in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial(7)
Randomized 72 VLBW infants (< 1500 grams) to immediate or delayed cord clamping (5-10 vs. 30-45 seconds).  Delayed cord clamp infants had significantly less IVH (5/36 in delayed group vs. 13/36 in immediate group, p = 0.03) and less late onset sepsis (1/36 vs. 8/36, p = 0.03).
Cesarean born babies pose further questions and changes in policy. Allowing skin to skin with the mother is quite progressive during this surgical procedure but delaying the cord clamping seems nearly impossible as prolonged sewing up the mother carries more risks. I guess the problem and question here lies much deeper and goes back to the alarmingly increased rate of cesarean births not only here in the US but worldwide.

I find that discussing Lotus Birth coincides with this topic. Lotus birthing is taking delayed cord clamping one step further in which the placenta remains attached until the cord detaches from the infant around 10 days postpartum. This practice remains controversial as some practitioners find that a decomposing placenta is a prime feeding ground for bacteria that may travel up towards the infant. Others believe that having a Lotus Birth allows for the most naturally occurring process to take place. Dr. Sarah J. Buckley endorses this practice and has written a book titled, "Gentle Birth, Gentle Mothering". You can also read and listen to her viewpoints on her website,

There is a protocol to consider when contemplating a Lotus Birth. You should also consider how you will maneuver the baby and the placenta at the same time. This may also be a factor when you have visitors over and how they feel about handling the infant (which may be a positive thing during the immediate postpartum period:)). Most importantly do your due diligence and weigh out the pros and cons. I have also included a list containing the protocol of having a Lotus Birth.
Protocol Of Lotus Birth
  • When the baby is born, leave the umbilical cord intact. If the cord is around the baby's neck, simply lift it over.

  • Wait for the natural delivery of the placenta. Do not use oxytocin - this forces too much too soon into the infant and compromises the placenta delivery.

  • When the placenta delivers, place it into a receiving bowl beside the mother.

  • Wait for full transfusion of the umbilical blood into the baby before handling the placenta.

  • Gently wash the placenta with warm water and pat dry.

  • Place the placenta into a sieve or colander for 24hrs to allow drainage.

  • Wrap the placenta in absorbent material, a nappy or cloth and put in into a placenta bag. The covering is changed daily or more often if seepage occurs. Alternatively, the placenta may be laid on a bed of sea salt (which is changed daily) and liberally covered with salt.

  • The baby is held and fed as the mother wishes.

  • The baby is clothed loosely.

  • The baby can be bathed as usual - keep the placenta with it.

  • Keep movement to a minimum

  • There are many more things to consider with regards to the placenta in which I hope to later blog about. I find it all very fascinating to learn about all of the alternatives and how culturally we view the placenta very differently. Until then...


    Friday, December 16, 2011

    Not Eating During Labor... an out-of-date practice

    Lately, I have been shocked by the amount of expectant mothers who are not aware that they cannot eat once the are admitted into the hospital. It is customary, here in the US, to make sure that laboring women only have liquids. These consist of water, ice chips, juice, jello (or Jelly to my UK friends :)) and Popsicles. Now, I don't know about you, but the last time I checked labor was a pretty intense process, requiring a ton of energy. How do doctors, or should I say anesthesiologists, expect moms to labor all day, or longer, and then push and push and push? Its a marathon for crying out loud and laboring women need to restore their energy!
    Eliminating solids from a laboring woman's diet stem back from the 1940's when a doctor, Curtis Mendelson, who studied aspiration in laboring rabbits noted that the risk of vomiting the contents of your stomach into your lungs is increased while under general anesthesia.
    Well, times have changed. For one thing there are a lot less women who have to go under general anesthesia for emergent cesareans, in fact only 1-2%. One doctor put it this way, "My own view of this has always been that you could say one shouldn’t eat or drink anything before getting into a car on the same basis, because you could be in an automobile accident and you might require general anesthesia,” said Dr. Marcie Richardson, an obstetrician and gynecologist at Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates in Boston. Plus, the risk for aspirating is much less than previously why hasn't the protocol changed?
    Some doctors, more midwives, will now allow small snacks during labor as they see the benefits outweigh the risks. Actually, studies show that the duration labor is shortened by 45-90 minutes in women who are allowed to eat! The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reviewed this policy in 2009 allowing mothers to drink clear liquids but have yet to remove the ban on solids.

    What even more interesting is that the United Kingdom doesn't have these same restriction. In fact they mention if a mother isn't refueling their body then they go into a state of ketosis which can cause nausea, vomiting and headaches. Counterproductive?
    Your best bet is to check in with your provider to see how the side with this subject. If you provider is adamant about no food then prepare to eat a substantial meal before you head to the hospital.
    So what is appropriate to eat while in labor, after all you don't want to add vomiting to the list of labor pains if you don't have to. Eating things such as toast with jam, plain pasta, applesauce, Jello, Popsicles or sorbet are great ways to boost your energy levels. Drinking things like clear broths, tea, water, juice without pulp and soda water will help keep you hydrated. Whatever you do skip the fast food, however tempted, on the way to the hospital or birthing center.

    Another thing to remember is that your birth partner will most likely get hungry. He or she should also eat a meal before embarking to the hospital and should pack snacks for the journey of labor as he or she may not be able to leave to grab a bite. Plus, never bring smelly food into a labor room. Laboring women has a high sensitivity to smell which may make them sick or in the very least distract them, from the task at hand and it's totally unfair since they can't eat!
    From experience, I can tell you that ate throughout my labor. I was told to visit the cafeteria upon arriving at the hospital and even though I wasn't feeling hungry I knew I was in it for the long haul. I also remember Richard, my husband, feeding me chocolate and water. I was exhausted, of course, but I can't imagine what it may have been like if I hadn't replenished the calories I had already burned.

    Thursday, December 15, 2011

    When is too much too much?

    Sorry I have been gone for so long. Life gets in the way sometimes :)

    Cartoon kids running toward christmas tree. Presents all around Stock Photo - 9362113
    I don't know about many of you but how do you handle Christmas, or any other gift giving holiday, when it comes to your children? I mean do friends and family ask you what to get for your kids? How do you answer?
    As a new mom I have found this interesting and challenging. I don't want Paige to grow up valuing monetary things? I want her to value the time spent with her family and I sure don't want her to think that Christmas is all about receiving. My mom asked me about a month ago if she could get her a playhouse, you know the life size ones. "She's only 17 months", I told her, "what the heck are you going to buy her when she's five?" That didn't go over really well. The way she sees it, as I'm sure that many do, is that she wants to spoil her. I had to put a stop to it. Below is an interview with Kim John Payne who wrote the book, "Simplicity Parenting". The interview discusses What Too Many Toys Can Do to your children.... it's an interesting piece.

    Scary, huh?

    Its already bad enough that she sees commercials for toys and is captivated. I can only imagine what it will be like when she's older and can conceptualize the holiday season! In fact, this season her father and I decided to get her only one gift. I just hope that my family can restrain themselves as there will be plenty more opportunities to give her things.

    Remind you of anything?!

    So, if you find yourself in this situation here are some alternatives you can tell friends and family in place of toys. After all, what do you remember most about your childhood? Is it the toy you received on your 6th birthday or is it the memories you made at the party???

    1. Have loved ones put money into a saving account or a trust fund set up in your child's name....I'm sure it will go to good use once they reach college! I know that in this economy many parents struggle to put money aside, why not have family pitch in?

    2. Suggest that family give your child the gift of time. Maybe they can set a date to take each child out alone to somewhere special such as the zoo or the museum. If family is out of town a sleep over is always fun.

    3. Sponsor a child through an international Charity or better yet donate to a local charity. Maybe something that the child is interested in and if it's in their own "Back Yard" they can watch to see how their donation is working.

    4. Get the child a annual pass to their local zoo, museum, fun park or water park. They can enjoy this gift over and over!

    5. Pay for lessons. Maybe they enjoy ballet or karate, piano or guitar. The possibilities here are endless.

    6. Adopt an animal at the World Wildlife fund or your local zoo. This way the child can watch the animal grow throughout the years and will enjoy visiting them too.

    7. Give them the gift of gardening. Help them plant some seeds and watch them get excited as they grow and produce fruit or vegetables. You'll also be teaching them about taking care of another living thing and a life lesson in providing food.

    8. The ultimate selfless act of volunteering for the holidays to those less fortunate. Help start a coat drive for needy children or serve food at the local shelter.

    charitable gift cartoons, charitable gift cartoon, charitable gift picture, charitable gift pictures, charitable gift image, charitable gift images, charitable gift illustration, charitable gift illustrations
    The possibilities are endless and the children will be much better off if they learn the value of giving instead of receiving. The value of time over objects. The value of memories over things.
    Telling friends and family about these thoughtful alternatives may be difficult but if you explain their purpose I'm sure many would understand and get on board.

    Monday, November 28, 2011

    Breast Milk Ingredients vs Formula Ingredients

    I came across this astonishing list while doing my training for my lactation license over the summer and thought that I would share it. Canada's government produced this poster displaying the ingredients of both breast milk and formula to markedly show the difference between the two. I was shocked myself to see how incredibly long the breast milk list is when compared to the formula list. It just goes to show that man will never be able to reproduce the amazing qualities of breast milk.

    Over the Thanksgiving Holiday I had a family member say to me, "aren't the benefits of breastfeeding void after one year of age?" My answer to this... How could that ever be the case seeing the list here. The benefits are astounding! I think it's safe to say that breast milk is by far the best SUPER FOOD that ever existed!

    Corn maltodextrinPartially hydrolyzed reduced minerals whey protein concentrate (from cow’s milk)Fats
    Palm olein
    Soybean oil
    Coconut oil
    High oleic safflower oil (or sunflower oil)
    M. alpina oil (Fungal DHA)
    C.cohnii oil (Algal ARA)
    Minerals Potassium citrate
    Potassium phosphate
    Calcium chloride
    Tricalcium phosphate
    Sodium citrate
    Magnesium chloride
    Ferrous sulphate
    Zinc sulphate
    Sodium chloride
    Copper sulphate
    Potassium iodide
    Manganese sulphate
    Sodium selenate
    Vitamins Sodium ascorbate Inositol
    Choline bitartrate
    Alpha-Tocopheryl acetate Niacinamide Calcium pantothenate
    Vitamin A acetate
    Pyridoxine hydrochloride
    Thiamine mononitrate
    Folic acid
    Vitamin D3
    Vitamin B12Enzyme
    Amino acid
    L-Carnitine (a combination of two different amino acids)
    Cytidine 5-monophosphate
    Disodium uridine 5-monophosphate
    Adenosine 5-monophosphate
    Disodium guanosine 5-monophosphate
    Soy Lecithin

    Breast Milk
    Carbohydrates (energy source) Lactose Oligosaccharides (see below)Carboxylic acid Alpha hydroxy acid
    Lactic acid
    Proteins (building muscles and bones)
    Whey protein
    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumour cells)
    Many antimicrobial factors (see below)
    Casein Serum albumin
    Non-protein nitrogens
    Uric acid
    Peptides (see below)
    Amino Acids (the building blocks of proteins)
    Clycine Cystine
    Taurine Theronine Tryptophan Tyrosine
    Carnitine (amino acid compound necessary to make use of fatty acids as an energy source)
    Nucleotides (chemical compounds that are the structural units of RNA and DNA)
    5’-Adenosine monophosphate (5"-AMP)
    3’:5’-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3’:5’-cyclic AMP)
    5’-Cytidine monophosphate (5’-CMP)
    Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP choline)
    Guanosine diphosphate (UDP)
    Guanosine diphosphate - mannose
    3’- Uridine monophosphate (3’-UMP)
    5’-Uridine monophosphate (5’-UMP)
    Uridine diphosphate (UDP)
    Uridine diphosphate hexose (UDPH)
    Uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-hexosamine (UDPAH)
    Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA)
    Several more novel nucleotides of the UDP type
    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (important for brain development)
    Arachidonic acid (AHA) (important for brain development)
    Linoleic acid Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
    Conjugated linoleic acid (Rumenic acid)
    Free Fatty Acids
    Monounsaturated fatty acids
    Oleic acid
    Palmitoleic acid
    Heptadecenoic acid
    Saturated fatty acids
    Stearic Palmitic acid
    Lauric acid
    Myristic acid
    Plasmalogens Sphingolipids
    Globotriaosylceramide (GB3)
    Globoside (GB4)
    Sterols Squalene Lanosterol Dimethylsterol Methosterol
    Desmosterol Triacylglycerol
    Stigma-and campesterol
    Sitosterol β-lathosterol
    Vitamin D metabolites
    Steroid hormones
    Vitamin A Beta carotene
    Vitamin B6
    Vitamin B8 (Inositol) Vitamin B12
    Vitamin C
    Vitamin D Vitamin E a-Tocopherol Vitamin K
    Riboflavin Niacin
    Folic acid
    Pantothenic acid
    BiotinMinerals Calcium
    Selenium Choline Sulpher
    Cobalt Fluorine
    Metal Molybdenum (essential element in many enzymes)
    Growth Factors (aid in the maturation of the intestinal lining)
    interleukin-1β (IL-1β)
    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)
    Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)
    Platelet derived growth factors (PDGF)
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
    Hepatocyte growth factor -α (HGF-α)
    Tumor necrosis factor-α
    Epithelial growth factor (EGF)
    Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)
    TGF β1
    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (also known as somatomedin C)
    Insulin-like growth factor- II
    Nerve growth factor (NGF)
    Peptides (combinations of amino acids)
    HMGF I (Human growth factor)
    Cholecystokinin (CCK)
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)
    Bombesin (gastric releasing peptide, also known as neuromedin B)
    Oxytocin Insulin
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    Leptin (aids in regulation of food intake)
    Ghrelin (aids in regulation of food intake)
    Feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL)
    Eicosanoids Prostaglandins (enzymatically derived from fatty acids)
    Enzymes (catalysts that support chemical reactions in the body)
    Xanthine oxidaseAntiproteases (thought to bind themselves to macromolecules such as enzymes and as a result prevent allergic and anaphylactic reactions)
    Phagocytes Basophils
    B lymphocytes (also known as B cells)
    T lymphocytes (also known as C cells)
    IgG IgD IgM
    Complement C1
    Complement C2
    Complement C3
    Complement C4
    Complement C5
    Complement C6
    Complement C7
    Complement C8
    Complement C9
    Lactadherin Alpha-lactoglobulin
    Alpha-2 macroglobulin
    Lewis antigens
    Haemagglutinin inhibitors
    Developed as a student project for the Breastfeeding Course for Health Care Providers, Douglas College, New Westminster, BC, Canada - © 2007 by Cecily Heslett, Sherri Hedberg and Haley Rumble.


    Bifidus Factor (increases growth of Lactobacillus bifidus - which is a good bacteria)
    Lactoferrin (binds to iron which prevents harmful bacteria from using the iron to grow)
    B12 binding protein (deprives microorganisms of vitamin B12)

    Fibronectin (makes phagocytes more aggressive, minimizes inflammation, and repairs damage caused by inflammation) Protein

    Hormones (chemical messengers that carry signals from one cell, or group of cells, to another via the blood) Cortisol

    Triiodothyronine (T3)
    Thyroxine (T4)
    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (also known as thyrotropin)
    Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH)
    Antimicrobial factors (are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. Leukocytes (white blood cells)
    sIgA (Secretory immunoglobulin A) (the most important antiinfective factor) IgA2 Mucins (attaches to bacteria and viruses to prevent them from clinging to mucousal tissues) Oligosaccharides (more than 200 different kinds!)

    Monday, November 14, 2011

    China may ban all formula advertisement... When will the US do the same?

    Four days ago the news reported that China is considering putting a ban on formula companies and how they advertise. They are thinking of banning all advertisements for formula marketed to babies 6 months and under. There is a lot of research that states that mothers are highly influenced by such advertisements, including the hospital bags given upon discharge, thus discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding. China has reported an increase on sales of stage 1 powdered formula from 5.68 billion in 2006 to 14.4 billion in 2010. That's a massive climb and the pharmaceutical companies are taking full advantage.
    The European Union has had a ban on formula advertisements marketed to infants under the age of one since 1995. Since then the National Childbirth Trust of England and UNICEF have seen a rise in advertisements of follow-on formula (formula for after 1 year of age). Formula companies have since changed the packaging of follow-on formula to look similar to that of stage 1 and 2 formula thus preying on mothers and infants as 60% of new mothers report seeing formula advertisements in the past year. What is also alarming is that mother's are getting confused with the differences in the formula and feeding follow-on formula, which has a higher mineral content, at too young of age. The NCT and UNICEF are now working towards banning all formula advertisements throughout the EU.
    "A lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life contributes to more than a million avoidable child deaths globally each year, the World Health Organization, which recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants, said in July."

    The WHO and UNICEF formed The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk substitutes in 1981. I have included the lengthy code below but I want to highlight this:

    4.2 Informational and educational materials, whether written, audio, or visual,
    dealing with the feeding of infants and intended to reach pregnant women and
    mothers of infants and young children, should include clear information on all the
    following points: (a) the benefits and superiority of breast-feeding; (b) maternal
    nutrition, and the preparation for and maintenance of breast-feeding; (c) the negative
    effect on breast-feeding of introducing partial bottle-feeding; (d) the difficulty of
    reversing the decision not to breast-feed; and (e) where needed, the proper use of
    infant formula, whether manufactured industrially or home-prepared. When such
    materials contain information about the use of infant formula, they should include the
    social and financial implications of its use; the health hazards of inappropriate foods
    or feeding methods; and, in particular, the health hazards of unnecessary or improper
    use of infant formula and other breast-milk substitutes. Such materials should not use
    any pictures or text which may idealize the use of breast-milk substitutes.
    In 1994, the United States signed onto the code, but I believe we are still seeing inappropriate advertising and unfortunately, the code is not legally binding. Now, I know that many of you have seen formula advertised here in the US and elsewhere, can you tell me that the advertisements follow the code? A television commercial would have to be at least five minutes long to cover just some of the information required above. Appalling if you ask me.
    "The World Health Organization said a study has found that Filipino mothers who have been influenced by advertisements or their doctors to use infant formula are two to four times more likely to feed their babies with those products." A study released November 3, 2011
    Did you receive a hospital bag at the hospital when you and your baby were discharged? Do you know what is in those bags? Formula samples and coupons! Guess who supplies the hospitals with the bags? The formula to the hospitals! Pharmaceutical companies make up 80% of baby formula sold  in the US and take advantage of the fact that many women trust that the hospital and doctors know best. The hospital is merely giving them away without a second thought as it's all about the bottom line. Each bag is said to cost the formula company $7, but a year of formula feeding costs $2000 in which a significant portion the families pay for such marketing. As a result, families are paying $700 per year for brand name formula when compared to store brands. Many organisations such as the WHO, UNICEF, CDC, AAP,  and the 200 Surgeon General condemned the use of such hospital bags. So why are hospitals still handing them out?
    Here lies room for massive reformation and revolution. Get on board.